Bag and Cartridge Filtration

Yukon Technology provides bag filtration from 1mm – 100 micron bags and 0.5 – 40 micron filters. This type of passive separation is a proven technology for separating suspended solids, metals or other non-soluble contaminants and is used in a variety of industries and applications. These technologies provide solutions to eliminate or reduce low concentrations of particulate-phase pollutants within a liquid phase. The bags or cartridges can also be used as apart of a treatment train as a pre-treatment for absorptive media further along in the process. The pre-treatment can extend the life of the equipment and/or media downstream.

Bag and cartridge filtration is a proven technology with a low cost of ownership. The bag or filter removes particulates as the water flows through the filter media. The bag or filter is contained within a larger pressure vessel which is sized with a predetermined number of cartridges or bags according to the flow rate of the process needed. As each of the filters captures the contaminants the pressure differential rises in the filter housing vessel. Once the pressure differential reaches its limit the bag or cartridge is to be replaced. The used media is discarded appropriately, and new bags or cartridges are installed.

Carbon Filtration

Carbon filtration utilizes a bed of Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC). This technology is used to absorb the soluble pollutant molecules within the fluid. The contaminants are trapped inside the porous structure of the carbon. This adsorption technology is used commonly to reduce the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs), oils, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, (PCBs), and hydrogen sulfides.

Within the treatment plant which utilizes carbon filtration, it is common for there to be a pretreatment to increase the life of the carbon and avoid issues with blinding from non-soluble solids in the fluid. It is a best practice to remove these contaminates prior to treating with GAC. Within the GAC treatment plant there is often a redundant vessel containing GAC. This pairing of vessels in series is called a “lead – lag” system. This is a best practice in order to determine when a systems GAC will need to be changed out and prevent the contaminates from being downstream of the carbon treatment portion of the treatment train. The bed depth, and fluid retention time, and frequency of GAC change out are all application specific. The bed depth and retention time are adjusted in the lead vessel to meet the project requirements. The frequency of change out is most affected by the quantity of the contaminants being absorbed into the GAC.

Chitosan-Enhanced Sand Filtration

A Chitosan-Enhanced Sand Filtration (CESF) is used for reducing the turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) in a fluid. By dosing a polymer at the front of the system, small clay particles are combined into larger particles. These larger pollutant particles fall out of suspension in the first stage of the treatment. The dosing of the chitosan is controlled to match the quantity of solids within the fluid system. CESF is a versatile treatment solution and has been shown to reduce or eliminate concentrations of a variety of pollutants, including high solids, metals, chemical- and biological oxygen demand, and bacterial colonization. CESF has been implemented on a number of facilities in a variety of industries with great success, becoming a called-out industry Best Management Practice (BMP) in the stormwater world.

Chemical Precipitation

Chemical Precipitation is used in difficult applications when the contaminates do not react well with other methods such as chitosan and absorptive media. Yukon Technology has experience in utilizing various chemical precipitants which are purpose built to eliminate these specific pollutants. Chemical precipitation is often used to target organic tannins, biological/chemical oxygen demand, dissolved metals, and other problem pollutants that do not respond well to other treatment methods. Specialized polymers can be used with mixed-media filtration or with settlement only, depending on site requirements and pollutant concentrations. Often, implementation of chemical precipitation polymers will require post-treatment pH correction to meet discharge requirements.

High-frequency Screens

High-frequency screens are often used to separate liquids and solids out of a slurry. These screens are often the first stage of solids removal in a system. The screens are fitted with various media sizes which are used to balance the volume of flow and the dryness of the solids. Often, the solids can be removed from a slurry in such a dry state that they can be immediately loaded into a truck. The liquid phase will likely still have solids remaining in the system, which will be treated by another piece of equipment further down the treatment system.


Hydrocyclones are often used as a second stage of solids removal in a solids dewatering process. Hydrocyclones or separators are used to dewater large volumes of water with a solids content up to 30%. The cyclones efficiently process a large volume of liquid at a low cut point. The solids are often less than 30% solids and discharged onto a high frequency screen for dewatering. This step in the process discharges solids in a dry stackable state, which can be loaded onto a truck for transport. The effluent from this system will often contain only clay and colloidal solids, which can be treated with organoclays to produce a sludge and clean water. The water can then be treated for dissolved contaminates and the sludge can be dewatered with a centrifuge or plate press.

Ion Exchange

In the treatment of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAs) and other contaminants such as copper, zinc, and selenium, ion exchange is often the preferred method of treatment. This method uses the exchange of ions between electrolytes and/or a complex. This targeted and selective method of treatment is a more cost-effective solution than Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC) applications such as PFAs.

Common ion exchange media are ion exchange resins (functionalized porous or gel polymer), zeolites, montmorillonite, clay, and soil humus. Ion exchange media are either cation exchange or anion exchange. Cation exchange media trade positive ions and the anion exchange negatively charged ions. There are also amphoteric ion exchange media that are able to exchange both cations and anions simultaneously. In the exchange of both cations and anions it is more common for the filter bed to be mixed rather than homogeneous of a single dual-purpose media. This is due to the efficiency of transfer.

Along with absorption and adsorption, ion exchange is a form of sorption. Ion exchange is a reversible process and the ion exchange media can be regenerated or loaded with desirable ions by washing with an excess of these ions.

Mechanical Media Filtration

When the fluid stream contains large and/or a large quantity of insoluble solids, often the most economical form of separation is mechanical separation. Mechanical separation would take place prior to a bag or cartridge treatment. Due to the size and/or volume of solids in the fluid bags or cartridges would become clogged quickly. The clogging results in increased cost and downtime. Therefore, these contaminants should be removed prior to the bag or cartridge filter in the treatment train. This technology allows the down stream equipment to be more efficient in separating the remainder of the small low volume contaminates.

The most common mechanical separation is with sand filters or mixed media (generally stacked gravel, gamat, and anthracite). These separation devices can be used to remove particles as low as 5 microns which often remove many of the particles within the bag or cartridge size range. Additionally, these separation devices can be fitted with automatic clean out systems which clean the system at controlled intervals. This greatly increases the reliability of any down stream separations equipment. These systems often replace the need for bag and cartridge systems which require more labor to maintain.

Metal Coprecipitation

Metals coprecipitation uses proprietary metal salt which targets several different water pollutants such as zinc, copper, and other commonly found metals in storm and wastewater. Yukon has the expertise in utilizing these salts to treat a fluid source for metal contaminates. Often along with this treatment the train will have to incorporate a pH correction. Metals coprecipitation is a common treatment near galvanizing facilities and metal scrap yards. Coprecipitation is a common reliable treatment used often in municipal drinking and wastewater systems.


Organoclay has an affinity for large molecule adsorption which makes this treatment particularly effective when paired with a Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) system. A GAC system has an affinity for small molecule adsorption complimenting the organoclay treatment. Utilizing an organoclay treatment prior to a GAC treatment will extend the life of the media and result in a more effective treatment system.

Organoclay is also a general term used to describe some polyamines, anthracites, and other components which enhance the adsorption for the specific range of contaminant. These types of organoclays are used when heavy metals are present in a fluid. Through bench testing and scaled tests Yukon will provide you with a properly sized system for your application.

pH Adjustment

The pH of a fluid stream may need to be adjusted to meet discharge requirements. This can be a constant issue or intermittent. This adjustment may need to be made due to a naturally occurring contaminants or due to a treatment further up in the treatment train such as chitosans, ion exchange resins, or metal coprecipitation. No matter the cause Yukon Technology can provide a solution to your pH needs. Yukon can provide an automated micro-dosing system ran by a PLC to make the automatic adjustment when needed.

The automated monitoring system can be fine tuned to meet discharge requirements. Yukon Technology utilizes strong acids or strong bases, depending on requirements, to micro-dose into the system to meet targeted requirements. Yukon can implement this system as a stand-alone unit or as apart of a larger treatment train.

Proprietary Adsorptive Media

Yukon Technology prides itself on providing solutions to problems. We work with our customers and vendors to meet this goal. There are times and situations where our vendors may have a new or special product to address a particular situation. We will work with that vendor and customer to validate the solution through bench and small-scale testing prior to full system implementation.

At times we use a blend of media which is industry proven and emerging technology. When utilizing a blend, the mix is formed off site and then tested on site in a small scale test. The results are often tested with various contact times and mixtures to optimize the performance of the system. The partnership between end users, suppliers, and manufactures is what sets Yukon Technology apart.

Reverse Osmosis (RO)

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semi-permeable membrane to remove ions, molecules, and larger particles from drinking water. This process is like filtration but involves a few key differences. First the process of filtration removes contaminates based on size. This process theoretically is a perfect filtration and is independent of pressure and flowrate. This is similar to a strainer. Conversely a RO system is based on diffusion. This process filters at the molecular level and is dependent on pressure, flow rate, and other outside conditions. An RO system can remove dissolved and suspended solids including bacteria. This process is used in the production of potable water and industrial applications.

Superfines Management

Yukon Technology works with manufacturers of centrifuges and frame presses to dewater sludge and flocculated waste streams. These streams contain clays and colloidal solids. When a slurry containing ultrafines is dosed with Organoclay or left to settle out, the solids will settle to the bottom of a tank, and the clean water will rise to the top. The solids left at the bottom of a tank often still have to be disposed of. This sludge is either disposed of as a liquid sludge, or further dewatered with a centrifuge or plate press. During the process of removing solids from a system often flocculants or settling tanks are used.

Ultra Violet (UV)

Ultraviolet (UV) is commonly used in water treatment after other filtration processes are complete. This is because the clarity (turbidity) of the water is key to the UV process. The treatment is much less effective when the water is not clear. UV is often used in place of a chlorination process due to the lower cost, ease of operation and elimination of potential residual chemical post-treatments. The treatment contact time is essential in this process, so it is critical that the system be sized properly for the contaminants.

Ultraviolet disinfection is a treatment method which uses ultraviolet light from lamps to destroy or inactivate microorganisms, such as bacterial or viruses, by destroying nucleic acid and disrupting the DNA replication process. This leaves the organisms unable to perform vital cellular functions.